In this video, Dr. K K Aggarwal, President Heart Care Foundation of India and Group Editor in Chief MEDtalks, will discuss the penicillin prophylaxis for treatment of rheumatic fever. The prophylaxis of penicillin depends on the risk of severity and recurrence of rheumatic fever. Simple rheumatic fever with no carditis can be given prophylaxis for 5 years or till the age of 21 years whichever is longer. Rheumatic fever with carditis can be given for 10 years. He will further explain the treatment if there is residual lesion with rheumatic fever.