Invasive Bacterial Infections incidence rates in Preterm Infants

Invasive Bacterial Infections incidence rates in Preterm Infants

Greenhow TL. et al. recently assessed invasive bacterial infection incidence rates in preterm infants and compared the rates and pathogens between preterm and full-term infants at ages 7-90 days.

They collected Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures between 7 and 90 days of age in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. The investigators then compared the invasive bacterial infection incidence rates using chronological age and postmenstrual age (PMA); and pathogens between preterm and full-term infants.

The researchers documented a total of 479 729 born infants, including 440 070 full-term infants and 39 659 preterm infants. They discovered 283 cases of bacteremia in 282 infants and found that the incidence rate of invasive bacterial infection was markedly greater for preterm infants compared with full-term infants and was highest in preterm infants at chronological age between 7-28 days and/or 37-39 weeks PMA. They also discovered that invasive bacterial infection decreased with increasing PMA in preterm infants aged between 61-90 days. However, Preterm infants aged between 29-60 days or at ≥40 weeks PMA and 61-90 days or at ≥43 weeks PMA displayed a rate of invasive bacterial infection equal to the overall rate as in full-term infants of the same chronological age group. Furthermore, they discovered a similar distribution of pathogens causing bacteremia and meningitis between preterm and full-term infants.

Through this study, the investigators show that PMA and chronological age together are more useful than either alone in reporting the invasive bacterial infection incidence rates in preterm infants during the first 90 days of life.

Greenhow TL, Nguyen THP, Young BR, Alabaster A. Following Birth Hospitalization: Invasive Bacterial Infections in Preterm Infants Aged 7-90 Days. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2023;252:171-176. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.08.004

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