Sleep Disorders: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments | Medtalks

Sleep Disorders: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments | Medtalks

What are Sleep Disorders ?

Most people have occasional sleeping problems as a result of stress, hectic schedules, and other external influences. However, if these issues become frequent and interfere with daily life, they may indicate a sleeping disorder.People with sleep disorders may have difficulty falling asleep and may feel extremely tired throughout the day, depending on the type of sleep disorder. Sleep deprivation can have an adverse effect on energy, mood, concentration, and overall health.


Sleep disorders can be a symptom of another medical or mental health condition in some cases. Once the underlying cause is treated, these sleeping problems may eventually go away.When a sleep disorder is not caused by another condition, it is usually treated with a combination of medical treatments and lifestyle changes.If you suspect you have a sleep disorder, it is critical that you receive a diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible. When left untreated, the negative effects of sleep disorders can have far-reaching consequences for one's health.


They can also have an impact on your work performance, cause strain in relationships, and impair your ability to carry out daily tasks.


What are the Types of Sleep Disorders ?

There are numerous types of sleep disorders. Some may be caused by underlying medical conditions.

Insomnia

Insomnia is defined as the inability to fall or stay asleep. Jet lag, stress, and anxiety, hormones, or digestive issues can all contribute to it. It could also be a symptom of something else. Insomnia can be detrimental to your overall health and quality of life, potentially resulting in:

  • irritability

  • difficulty concentrating

  • depression

  • weight gain


Insomnia is unfortunately very common. It affects up to half of all American adults at some point in their lives. The disorder is most common in older people and women.Insomnia is typically classified into three types:

  1. Chronic insomnia occurs on a regular basis for at least one month. 

  2. Intermittent insomnia occurs on a regular basis.

  3. Transient insomnia occurs for only a few nights at a time.


Sleep Apnea Meaning ?

Sleep apnea is defined by pauses in breathing while sleeping. This is a serious medical condition in which the body consumes less oxygen. It can also cause you to wake up in the middle of the night.

There are two types of sleep apnea: 

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea, in which the flow of air is interrupted because the airway space is obstructed or too narrow.

  2. Central sleep apnea, in which there is a problem with the connection between the brain and the muscles that control your breathing.


Parasomnia Meaning ?

Parasomnia's are a type of sleep disorder characterized by abnormal movements and behaviors while sleeping. They are as follows:

  • sleepwalking

  • sleep conversing

  • groaning

  • nightmares

  • Bedwetting

  • teeth grinding

  • jaw clenching 


Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)

Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is characterized by an overwhelming desire to move one's legs. This desire is occasionally accompanied by a tingling sensation in the legs. These symptoms can occur during the day, but they are most common at night.


RLS is frequently associated with certain medical conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease, but the precise cause is not always known.


What are the seven sleep disorders ?

The first one is insomnia. Insomnia means that you have trouble falling asleep or staying awake during your night's rest. It can be caused by a number of things, including stress and anxiety. The second disorder is narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden attacks of excessive daytime drowsiness. This may happen at any time but most often occurs in the middle of the day when people are not sleeping. People with this condition also experience hallucinations while they're awake.


Next on our list is obstructive sleep apnea. OSA is marked by repeated episodes of interrupted breathing throughout the night. These interruptions cause loud snoring and sometimes even choking sounds. In addition to these symptoms, people who suffer from OSA usually feel tired all day long. They might also wake up feeling groggy and confused. Sleep paralysis is another type of sleep disorder. During sleep paralysis, patients become paralyzed for several seconds before waking up. Patients describe it as being like having an out-of-body experience. REM behavior disorder is yet another kind of sleep disorder. People suffering from RBD act out their dreams. For example, they might punch themselves or bite their bed sheets. Finally, we come to restless leg syndrome. People with RLS get uncomfortable sensations in their legs.


Sometimes they move around so much that they disturb others. Other times, they just want to lie down and relax. All of these conditions affect how well someone sleeps. If you think you might have a problem with sleep, talk to your doctor about getting tested. He'll probably ask questions such as: How do you feel after going to bed? Do you fall asleep easily? Are there other problems affecting your ability to stay alert during the day? What medications are you taking?

Is there anything else I should know?

I'm assuming you mean "sleep" rather than "rest". There are many different types of sleep disorders, some more common than others. Some examples include:


Insomnia - Difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep

Narcolepsy - A neurological disease where sufferers suddenly lose muscle tone and consciousness upon entering deep sleep

Restless Leg Syndrome - An unpleasant sensation experienced in the

muscles of the lower limbs

REM Behavior Disorder - Acting out dream content

Obstructive Sleep Apnoea - Breathing stops repeatedly through the night

Somnambulism - Walking without awareness


There are also various medical reasons why someone could stop breathing during sleep. One reason would be if they were allergic to something in their environment, which causes them to choke.

If you suspect you have a sleep disorder then see your GP or specialist.


Source: www.medicinenet.com/snore_apnea/article.htm


What are the Signs & Symptoms of Sleep Disorders?

The symptoms vary according to the severity and type of sleeping disorder. They may also differ when sleep disorders are caused by another condition.

General symptoms of sleep disorders include:

  • Having trouble falling or staying asleep

  • fatigue during the day

  • unusual breathing patterns and a strong desire to nap during the day

  • unusual or unpleasant urges to move while falling asleep 

  • unusual movement or other sleep experiences

  • unintentional shifts in your sleep-wake cycle

  • irritability or anxiety

  • poor performance at work or school 

  • inability to concentrate 

  • depression

  • gaining weight


How to diagnose sleep disorders?


Your doctor will begin by performing a physical examination and gathering information about your symptoms and medical history. They may also order the following tests:


1. Polysomnography (PSG): This is a lab sleep study that compares oxygen levels, body movements, and brain waves to see how they disrupt sleep vs. home sleep study (HST), which is done at home and is used to diagnose sleep apnea.


2. Electroencephalogram (EEG): This is a test that evaluates electrical activity in the brain and detects any potential problems associated with it. It is a component of polysomnography.


3. Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT): This daytime napping study, combined with a PSG at night, is used to help diagnose narcolepsy.


These tests can be critical in determining the best treatment plan for sleep disorders.

Treatment of Sleep Disorders ?

Insomnia treatments that are commonly used include:


  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) - You will work with a therapist to address underlying mental health issues like anxiety or depression.
  • Sleep Hygiene Instruction - A sleep specialist will work with you to develop better sleeping habits.

Treatment of Underlying Medical Conditions

Your doctor will look for a problem that may be contributing to your sleep problem and will try to treat both conditions: 


  • Medication: In the short term, some sleep medications may help alleviate the symptoms of insomnia.

  • Changes in Lifestyle: Changing your daily routine and activities may also be beneficial. 

  • Abstaining from caffeine  

  • Exercising close to bedtime.


FAQ's Sleep Disorders

Who Gets These Sleep Disorders?

People Of Any Race, Gender, Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, Socioeconomic Status, Education Level, Occupation, Marital Status, Family Size, Geographic Location, Body Mass Index,

Smoking History, Alcohol Intake, Exercise Habits, Diet, Medical Condition, Medication Usage, Stress Levels, Caffeine Intake And Genetics May Be Affected By One Or More Sleep Disorders.

How many types of sleep disorders are there?

The most commonly diagnosed sleep disorders include: Insomnia, Narcolepsy Restless Legs Syndrome .

What are the symptoms of sleep disorders?

The following may be signs of some sleep disorders:

1. Insomnia - feeling too sleepy during the day

2. Difficulty concentrating

3. Fatigue

4. Irritability

5. Depression

6. Headaches

7. Memory loss

8. Poor judgment

9. Trouble staying focused

10. Daytime drowsiness

11. Narcolepsy - sudden episodes of uncontrollable muscle weakness and excessive sleepiness

12. Restlessness

13. Rapid eye movement behavior disorder - abnormal movements of the eyes, mouth, arms, hands, feet,

What are the treatments for sleep disorders?

Treatment options for sleep disorders:

There are many treatment options for sleep disorders. Your doctor might recommend one type over another based on what kind of sleep disturbance you're having. Treatment methods vary depending on the cause of the sleep disorder. For example, if you have insomnia because you find yourself lying awake after going to bed, there are things you can try before resorting to medication. What are some tips for getting a good night's sleep?

Conclusion

Sleep disorders can be so disruptive that you will most likely want immediate relief. Long-term cases, on the other hand, can take a little longer to resolve.However, if you stick to your treatment plan and communicate with your doctor on a regular basis, you can find your way to better sleep.


References:

 

  1. https://www.healthline.com/health/sleep/disorders