Thyroid Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Treatment, Types | Medtalks

Thyroid Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Treatment, Types | Medtalks

Thyroid Cancer 

Thyroid gland is a component of the endocrine system. The endocrine system produces hormones that regulate the body's normal functions. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the throat. It has two lobes, one on each side. The isthmus is the section of the thyroid gland that connects the lobes. 

The thyroid gland produces the hormone thyroxine, which aids the body in regulating:

  • metabolic rate

  • blood pressure

  • heart rate

  • body temperature

  • body weight


The most common type of endocrine cancer is thyroid cancer. This could be because the disease has become easier to detect.

Types of Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is a rare disease. It is the tenth most common type of cancer in the United States. It is about one-tenth the frequency of breast cancer and one-fifth the frequency of lung cancer.They are classified based on how the cancerous cells appear. Well-differentiated cells are cancerous cells that resemble healthy cells. Undifferentiated cells grow faster than well-differentiated cells. Thyroid cancer comes in a variety of forms, including:

1. Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Papillary thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer that is well-differentiated. It is the most common. It is most common in women of childbearing age. It is less dangerous than other types of thyroid cancer. It spreads more slowly and is very treatable.


2. Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Another well-defined type of thyroid cancer is medullary thyroid cancer. There is a genetic component to some cases of medullary thyroid cancer. This can result in it occurring as part of an endocrine gland cancer syndrome. Cases that do not have a genetic component are referred to as "sporadic." Non-thyroid cells in the thyroid gland give rise to medullary thyroid cancer. It is treated in a different way than other types of thyroid cancer.


3. Follicular Thyroid Cancer

Follicular thyroid cancer is the most likely type of thyroid cancer to spread and recur. Hurthle cell carcinoma is a type of follicular carcinoma.


4. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

The most aggressive type of thyroid cancer is anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is uncommon and difficult to treat.


5. Thyroid Lymphoma

It is a type of cancer that affects the thyroid gland. This is a very uncommon type of thyroid cancer. It all starts with immune cells in the thyroid gland.


Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer

There are no symptoms of early thyroid cancer. If your thyroid gland is healthy, you will not be able to feel it. The following symptoms may occur as thyroid cancer progresses:


  • a lump in the throat hoarseness from coughing

  • Throat and neck pain

  • difficulty swallowing

  • swollen lymph nodes in the neck


Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

Thyroid cancer risk factors include:

  • having a history of thyroid cancer in one's family

  • being a woman with a history of breast cancer and having been exposed to radiation


Age is another risk factor. Thyroid cancer is most likely to develop after the age of 40.


Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer can be detected through a physical exam or a laboratory test. A thyroid mass, whether small or large, may be discovered during a neck examination. Lymph nodes may also swell.The following lab tests and procedures are used to diagnose thyroid cancer:

Thyroid function examinations could be:-

  • a thyroglobulin test for papillary or follicular cancers

  • thyroid ultrasonography

  • a thyroid examination

  • Thyroid biopsies

  • calcitonin level in blood 

  • laryngoscopy calcium level in blood 

  • phosphorous level in blood 

  • calcitonin level in blood


Thyroid Cancer Treatment

Treatment will be determined by the type of cancer you have and whether it has metastasized, or spread.The majority of people have their thyroid gland surgically removed, either entirely or partially. This disables your body's ability to produce natural thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones can be replaced orally.

Among the other treatments are:

  • chemotherapy

  • radioactive iodine 

  • external beam radiation therapy.


How to Prevent Thyroid Cancer

In most cases, the cause of thyroid cancer is unknown. This means that for the vast majority of people, there is no known way to avoid it. Medullary thyroid cancer is known to be hereditary. If your family has a history of this type of thyroid cancer, consult your doctor. Your doctor can refer you to a genetic counselor who can assess your risk of developing thyroid cancer. People who live near nuclear power plants have a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer than those who do not. If you live near a nuclear power plant, consult your doctor about potassium iodine pills. Maintain your annual checkups and notify your doctor if you notice any new symptoms. This increases the likelihood that your doctor will detect any serious health complications in their early stages.

FAQ's Thyroid Cancer

What are the symptoms of thyroid cancer?

Thyroid hormones also help control your body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate. Obesity body mass index Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, especially during childhood. Other less common forms of thyroid cancer include Hurthle cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, spindle cell sarcomas and undifferentiated carcinomas.


Is there any way to prevent thyroid cancer?


Yes! You can reduce your risk by eating healthy food and taking steps to protect yourself against radiation exposure. These tips will keep you safe: Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Thyroid Cancer and Chemotherapy?

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is extremely difficult to treat because it spreads so rapidly and aggressively. Most patients die from metastatic disease within 2 months of being diagnosed. Only 10%-15% survive 5 years. There is currently no effective treatment available for advanced stage anaplastic thyroid cancer beyond palliative measures. If you have been told you have thyroid cancer, please contact me immediately. I am here to help you understand what you need to know.


Types of thyroid cancer ?


The most common type is papillary, which accounts for about 80% to 85% of all cases. It usually grows slowly and may be treated with surgery alone or in combination with radioactive iodine. The second-most frequent form is follicular carcinoma, which can also grow very slowly but tends to spread more aggressively than the other types. Medullary carcinomas are rarer still; they tend to metastasize early and often cause death within a few years after diagnosis.


What is the main cause of thyroid cancer and what are its symptoms?


The most common type of thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma, accounts for about 80% to 85% of all cases. It usually occurs in women between 30 and 50 years old. The second most frequent form of thyroid cancer is follicular cell-derived cancers which account for 10% to 15% of all thyroid malignancies. They occur more often in men than in women, with a peak incidence at age 40 to 60.


What causes thyroid cancer?


The cause of thyroid cancer remains unknown but there are several factors that increase your risk for developing this disease:

• Family history – Thyroid cancer can run in families. If one parent has had it, then you’re more likely to develop it too. This means that if both parents have been diagnosed with thyroid cancer, their children also have an increased chance of getting it as well.


Is thyroid cancer curable ?

The good news about thyroid cancer: It's one of the most curable cancers out there. The bad news: Thyroid cancer tends to be harder to detect than other types of cancer and often has no early warning signs. But once detected, thyroid cancer responds well to treatment.


References:


  1. https://www.healthline.com/health/thyroid-cancer#prevention

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