What is ADHD : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | Medtalks

What is ADHD : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | Medtalks

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


What is ADHD ?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition that impairs your ability to pay attention, sit still, and regulate your behavior. It begins in childhood and can continue throughout maturity. The most prevalent mental illness among youngsters is ADHD. Boys are more likely than girls to have it.  It is generally discovered in the early school years when a kid begins to have difficulty paying attention. ADHD cannot be avoided or treated. However, early detection, as well as a strong treatment and education plan, can help a kid or adult with ADHD manage their symptoms.


What are the Symptoms of ADHD | What are the Symptoms of ADHA in a Child

There are three categories of symptoms: 

Inattentive ADHD in a child:

  • Is prone to becoming distracted

  • Doesn't listen to instructions or complete duties

  • Doesn't appear to be paying attention.

  • Pays no attention and makes thoughtless errors

  • Forgets about everyday responsibilities

  • Has difficulty arranging everyday duties

  • Doesn't enjoy doing tasks that require him to sit still.

  • Frequently misplaces items

  • He has a tendency to daydream.


Hyperactive-impulsive

  • When sitting, a kid with ADHD frequently squirms, fidgets, or jumps.

  • Does not remain seated

  • Has difficulty playing softly

  • Is constantly moving, such as while sprinting or climbing on items. (In teenagers and adults, this is more commonly referred to as restlessness.)

  • Excessive talking

  • Is always "on the go," as though "powered by a motor"

  • Has difficulty waiting their turn

  • Answers are scribbled out

  • Interrupts others at the same time


Combined: This includes both sorts of symptoms.

Adult Symptoms: ADHD symptoms might vary as a person ages. These are some examples:

  • Being frequently late or neglecting things

  • Anxiety

  • Self-esteem issues

  • Problems at work 

  • Having difficulty regulating one's anger.

  • Impulsiveness

  • Addiction or substance abuse

  • Having difficulty keeping organized

  • Procrastination

  • Easily irritated

  • Frequently bored

  • Having difficulty concentrating when reading 

  • Mood swings

  • Depression

  • Relationship issues


What are the Causes of ADHD? 

Experts are unsure as to what causes ADHD. Several factors may contribute to it, including:


  • Genes. ADHD is a trait that runs in families.

  • Chemicals. ADHD patients' brain chemistry may be out of balance.

  • Attention-controlling areas of the brain are less active in youngsters with ADHD.

  • Pregnancy complications include malnutrition, infections, smoking, drinking, and drug misuse. These items can have an impact on a baby's brain development.

  • Lead is a toxin. It may have an impact on a child's brain development.

  • A brain disorder or damage. Damage to the frontal lobe of the brain, also known as the prefrontal lobe, can lead to difficulties managing impulses and emotions.


ADHD is not caused by sugar. ADHD is also not caused by excessive TV viewing, a stressful home environment, inadequate schooling, or food allergies.


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ADHD Diagnosis & Evaluation | Where to go for ADHD Diagnosis

ADHD may be difficult to diagnose, especially in youngsters. 


  • No test will detect it. Doctors diagnose ADHD in children and teenagers after discussing symptoms with the child, parents, and teachers, as well as monitoring the child's behavior. 

    • Doctors follow the standards of the American Psychiatric Association, which are based on how many symptoms a person has and how long they have had them. 

    • They will also rule out any other factors that might be producing the symptoms, such as medical illnesses or everyday difficulties.


  • A kid may be subjected to a battery of tests to assess their neurological and psychological state in order to validate a diagnosis of ADHD or learning difficulties. 

    • The tests should be administered by a physician or mental health professional who has expertise in diagnosing and treating ADHD. 

    • A specialist, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or psychotherapist, may be referred to you by your primary care physician. 

    • A medical and social history of both the kid and the family may be included in the examinations.


  • A medical examination and neurological evaluation include vision, hearing, language, and motor skill assessments. If hyperactivity is linked to another physical condition, further testing may be done.

  • A test determines intellect, aptitude, personality characteristics, or processing abilities. If the kid is of school age, they are frequently done with assistance from parents and instructors.

  • The Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System is a scan that analyses theta and beta brain waves. Theta/beta ratios have been found to be greater in children and adolescents with ADHD than in those who do not have it.


Treatment for ADHD | What is the Best Treatment for ADHD

ADHD can be treated in a variety of ways. However, evidence shows that a multimodal strategy is the best method to treat symptoms in many children. This entails a combination of therapeutic approaches that act in tandem. Many ADHD symptoms can be controlled with medication and treatment. It is critical that therapists, physicians, teachers, and parents work together closely. 


Medication | Does ADHD Medication Work

Although there is some debate regarding their potential misuse, stimulants are the most often recommended medicines for ADHD treatment. They can aid in the management of hyperactive and impulsive behavior as well as the improvement of attention span. They work on brain chemicals such as dopamine, which can exacerbate impulsive behavior.

They include:

  • Amphetamine (Adzenys XR ODT, Dyanavel)

  • Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)

  • Dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine)

  • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)

  • Methylphenidate (Aptensio, Cotempla, Concerta, Daytrana, Jornay PM, Metadate, Methylin, Quillivant, Ritalin)


ADHD medications may cause the following side effects:

  • Anxiety

  • Appetite loss

  • Fatigue

  • Crankiness

  • Sleeping problems

  • Discoloration of the skin (with patches)

  • Stomach ache

  • Headache


The majority of adverse effects are mild and improve over time. In rare situations, doctors may reduce a medication's dose to alleviate adverse effects. Stimulants can have more significant adverse effects in rare situations. Some, for example, have been associated with an increased risk of cardiac issues and mortality in children with heart disease. They may also aggravate mental disorders such as depression or anxiety, or trigger a psychotic response.Talk to your doctor about the dangers and advantages of ADHD medication before starting it for your kid. Remember that finding the appropriate medication and dose may need some trial and error. 


Therapy

These therapies are aimed at altering behavior. A youngster with special needs learns more effectively in school. Structure and regularity may be quite beneficial to children with ADHD.


  • Behavior modification explains how to replace negative behaviors with positive ones. Make it clear to your child what actions you expect of them. Make basic, unambiguous rules. When they lose control, have them confront the penalties you've set up, such as time-outs or loss of privileges. Keep an eye out for appropriate conduct. Reward them when they control their urges.


  • Psychotherapy (counseling) can assist a person with ADHD in learning better methods to manage their emotions and frustration. It may assist them to enhance their self-esteem. Counseling may also assist family members in better understanding an ADHD kid or adult. Social skills training may teach habits such as sharing and taking turns.


  • The Monarch external Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (eTNS) System has been authorized by the FDA for children aged 7 to 12 who are not using ADHD medication. It is approximately the size of a cellphone and is connected to electrodes on a patch that is applied to a child's forehead. It delivers low-level signals to the region of their brain considered to be responsible for ADHD. The gadget is often worn at night.


  • Support groups comprised of people with similar issues and requirements might assist you in learning more about ADHD and how to manage your symptoms. These support groups can help individuals with ADHD or parents of children with ADHD. 


  • ADHD and education is another key aspect of ADHD therapy. It involves educating parents about the illness and how to handle it. This may entail acquiring parenting techniques to assist a kid in managing their behavior. In certain situations, the entire family of the kid may be involved.


Natural Remedies to Cure ADHD

A few modifications in your lifestyle can also help you or your kid manage symptoms:


  • Dietary supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids have been found to help patients with ADHD. 
  • Consume a nutritious diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.
  • Every day, get some exercise. Exercise has been shown in studies to assist children with ADHD regulate their impulses and other behavioral issues. 
  • Consider enrolling your youngster in a sports team, such as basketball, soccer, or baseball. 
  • Playing sports not only provides exercise for children, but it also teaches them vital social skills such as how to obey rules and take turns.
  • Limit the amount of time you spend on technological gadgets.
  • Get lots of rest.
  • Maintain a consistent schedule and routine.
  • Discuss your expectations for your child in a straightforward and honest manner. Make your directions as short and detailed as possible ( "Make sure you brush your teeth. Now, get dressed.") rather than generic ("Get ready for school.").
  • When you're chatting to your child, your attention should be solely on them.
  • Set a good example by being calm and attentive.
  • Maintain consistency in discipline, and ensure that other caregivers follow your lead.
  • Reward appropriate conduct.
  • Increase your child's self-esteem. Because they may have difficulty digesting directions and other information, they may be inundated with corrections, leading to poor self-esteem. Make every effort to enhance your child's self-esteem.

The Bottom Line

Without treatment, ADHD may make it difficult to deal with ordinary problems. Children may struggle to learn or develop social skills. Adults may struggle with relationships and addiction. Mood swings, sadness, low self-esteem, eating disorders, risk-taking, and confrontations with others may also result from the disease. However, many people with ADHD live happy, full lives. Treatment is beneficial when dealing with ADHD. It is critical to keep track of your symptoms and to see your doctor on a frequent basis. Medication and therapies that were formerly successful may no longer be effective. Your treatment plan may need to be adjusted. Some people's symptoms improve in early adulthood, while others are able to stop treatment.