There exists Practice variability regarding the usage of corticosteroids in treating or preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants, but limited information exists on longer-term impacts.
A recent study described the use of corticosteroids in extremely preterm infants and evaluated the association with neurodevelopmental outcomes.
This study came as a secondary analysis of data from the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection (PENUT) randomized clinical trial, conducted in the US. Inborn infants born between 24 0/7 and 27 6/7 weeks gestational age were included in the analysis. The study evaluated the cumulative dose of dexamethasone and duration of therapy for dexamethasone and prednisolone or methylprednisolone.
Demographic and clinical characteristics were described in infants who did or did not receive corticosteroids of interest and survived to discharge. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development–Third Edition (BSID-III) at corrected age of 2 years.
The following results were obtained-
These findings indicate an association between long-duration & higher cumulative dose of dexamethasone and worse neurodevelopmental scores at corrected age 2 years. Potential unmeasured differences in the clinical conditions of exposed vs unexposed infants may heighten these findings.
SOURCE- Puia-Dumitrescu M, Wood TR, Comstock BA, et al. Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, and Methylprednisolone Use and 2-Year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(3):e221947. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.1947
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