Characteristics shifting of heart disease in pregnancy: A report from low middle-income country

Heart disease in pregnancy remains one of the prime causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. However, the features of the disease differ between countries and regions. A recent study presented the characteristics of pregnant women with heart disease in an economically advantageous region of a developing country.

This cross-sectional study utilized data from the Weekly Report of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department to assess pregnant women with heart disease characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. 69 pregnant women with heart disease concerning their gestational age were enrolled for the study; and maternal characteristics, heart disease’s clinical parameter, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were measured. 

The Chi-square test was utilized to examine the different characteristics of congenital and acquired heart disease groups.

The results showed-

  • The prevalence of cardiac disease in pregnancy to be 5.19%. 
  • 53.6% of pregnant women with heart disease suffered from congenital heart disease (CHD), while 46.4% had acquired heart disease (AHD). 
  • Cesarean delivery is the common labor method and presence of cardiac complications in 69.6% of the women. 
  • Maternal death in 8.69% of cases. 
  • CHD was complicated by pulmonary hypertension in 4 cases, which caused Eisenmenger syndrome. 
  • AHD is complicated by Peripartum Cardiomyopathies in 2 cases. 
  • Although statistically insignificant, complications were more common in the AHD group than in CHD.

Thus, Cardiac disease prevalence in pregnancy can be said to be high, with CHD being the commonest case, which significantly differs from other developing countries.

SOURCE- Puspa Pitaloka C, Secka A, Ernawati E, et al. Characteristics shifting of heart disease in pregnancy: A report from low middle-income country. J Public Health Res. 2021;10(4):2137. Published 2021 Jul 14. doi:10.4081/jphr.2021.2137

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