A comprehensive course on dengue-screening, diagnosis and management

 Course Curriculum

Dengue has assumed endemic proportions and every year causes 50 million infections worldwide. No therapeutic agents exist for dengue treatment and the key to management is early screening as well as timely and judicious supportive management including fluid management and close monitoring. We bring to you a comprehensive course on dengue covering all aspects of the dengue infection including screening, diagnosis, clinical tests, management and public health approaches in treating as well as preventing the epidemic of dengue.

  • Chapter 1  Burden of dengue, transmission
      • We bring to you 7 modules which will talk about all aspects of dengue fever.
      • Dengue fever has assumed epidemic proportions.
      • Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya-related to Aedes mosquito.
      • 50% of world’s population now at risk
        • No immunity.
        • Aedes mosquito freely moving.
        • It requires fresh water
      • Past 10 years, no of dengue cases has been increasing
      • Mosquito borne viral infection
      • Female mosquito bites
      • Two species: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus
      • Also transmits zika virus, chikungunya and yellow fever
      • Flaviviurs, 4 different strains
        • DENV1
        • DENV2
        • DENV3
        • DENV4
      • DENV2 and DENV4 are more dangerous
      • First infection may be not serious, but second is
      • 2006: 15, 000 cases were reported in Delhi [epidemic]
      • Dengue mosquito is an indoor mosquito
      • Day biter
      • Flies lower in the air
      • It can grow anywhere, from small containers to large water bodies (tank, cooler, small cup)
      • Virus can transmit through the eggs
      • Eggs can remain alive throughout the year
      • Southern part: throughout the year
      • Northern India: April-November
      • After virus incubation of 4 to 10 days, an infective virus can transmit for the rest of its life.
      • Infected asymptomatic or symptomatic patients are the main carriers
      • Become the public health detective
      • Infected patients can transmit infection up to 4-5 days; sometimes up to 12 days
      • Public Health Message:
        • Destroy the breeding of the mosquito wherever it is found
      • Image of a building free from mosquito
  • Chapter 2  Phases of dengue infection
      • Febrile phase
        • High fever <38.5 degree C
        • Associated headache, myalgia, arthralgia
        • Transient macular rash
        • Lasts 3-7 days
      • Critical Phase
        • Observe, complications may occur, if not detected may lead to complications
        • Around the time when the fever starts subsiding
        • Day 3 to 7
        • Lasts for 24-48 hours
        • Occurs only in small proportion of patients
        • Plasma leakage, tend to bleeding, shock and organ impairment
        • Rule of 20
        • 20 ml per Kg body weight of body fluid, to be continued till the patient passes urine
      • Convalescent Phase
        • Recovery phase
        • Plasma leakage and hemorrhage resolve
        • Vital signs are stabilizing
        • Accumulated fluids (pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, ascites are subsiding)
        • An additional rash, a confluent erythematous eruption with small islands of unaffected skin that is often pruritic may appear
        • Within 1-2 days of effervescence
        • Recovery phase lasts 2 to 4 days
        • Some patients, especially adults, may have profound fatigue
        • No fever, Itching and rash indicates patient has already recovered or recovering
  • Chapter 3  Clinical diagnosis on Dengue
      • Suspect dengue with typical features of dengue fevers
        • Headache
        • Nausea
        • Vomiting
        • Retro-orbital pain
        • Myalgia, arthralgia, rash
        • Hemorrhagic manifestation-positive tourniquet test and
      • Tests needed
        • Hemogram
        • CBC
      • If TLC count is low, the patient has a viral fever
      • If tourniquet test is positive, patient has viral hemorrhagic fever
      • If retro-orbital pain is there, the patient has dengue
      • If the patient
      • In chikungunya, severe joint pain and TLC or platelet count may not reduce
      • In Zika, conjunctivitis may also be present
      • Limit tests to be done for dengue
  • Chapter 4  Clinical Testing
      • Pulse rate
        • Low pulse rate may mean typhoid fever
        • High pulse rate may be associated with leakage, internal bleeding or hemorrhagic fever
        • High pulse rate more than 20, may be a sign of leakage
      • Blood pressure
        • Systolic and diastolic
        • Sudden fall in systolic blood pressure more than 20 mm Hg, it may indicate a leakage
        • Difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure of less than 20 indicates leakage, intravascular dehydration
      • Positive tourniquet test
        • Checking microvascular fragility
      • How to do a tourniquet test?
        • Inflate a blood pressure cuff on the arm to midway between systolic and diastolic blood pressure for 5 minutes
        • Release the pressure for 1 minute and the skin below the cuff is examined for finding of petechae
        • More than 10 petechiae in 1 sq. inch means positive tourniquet test
        • If it is more than 20 it is highly suggestive of dengue fever
      • Check List
        • Pulse rate
        • Systolic and diastolic pressure
        • Tourniquet test
  • Chapter 5  Diagnosis of dengue by biochemical test
      • NS1 antigen test
        • Recommended if patient has fever between 1 to 7 days
        • Sensitivity can exceed 90% in primary infection
        • In secondary cases, sensitivity reduces to 60%
      • IgG and IgM
        • Can be positive as early as 4 days
      • Seroconversion
        • If IgM positive
        • Between paired acute and convalescent phase specimens
        • Day 1
        • Day 10 to 14
        • 4 fold rise in antibody titers –dengue confirmed
      • IgM
        • Recent infection
      • IgG
        • o Previous infection
      • NS1, IgG and IgM positive
        • Secondary infection
      • ELISA
      • Rapid test
  • Chapter 6  Public health aspects of dengue, Aedes mosquito and other mosquitoes
      • Prevention from mosquito bites
      • Dengue-daytime; others-throughout the day
      • Indexed case and clinically diagnosed case
      • First case in the city suggests mosquito breeding has started; there will be large numbers of asymptomatic cases, 50 meters all around find mosquito breeding and try to eliminate the mosquitoes
      • Dengue is a notifiable disease
        • Notify all cases- suspected and confirmed
      • Image of bottle cap of any soft drink; image of underground or rooftop water tank
      • Rub dry all utensils containing water
      • Change the water collection, dry rub them
        • Else eggs can stay on the walls of the surface and remain alive for a year
      • Image of public health professionals looking for mosquitoes
      • Follow the mosquito elimination process in the state
        • Images of temephos tablets, kerosene and gambusia fish in ponds
      • Ghar to bula raha hai, katwayega toh nahi? If an image can be searched!
      • Breeding of mosquitoes in hospitals can be detrimental
        • Infected mosquitoes can bite people with comorbid conditions
      • Wear clothes that completely cover
      • Use a repellant with 20-30%DEET or 20% picaridin on exposed skin
      • Wear neutral colored (such as light grey) clothing
      • Window screens, insecticide treated bed nets, mosquito repellant coils and vaporisers
      • Prevent spread of infection
      • Vaccines are not available in India
        • Vaccinations are always effective after the first infection has occurred
  • Chapter 7  Clinical Tip
      • Rule of 20.

     About the instructor


    Recipient of Padma Shri, Vishwa Hindi Samman, National Science Communication Award and Dr B C Roy National Award, Dr Aggarwal is a physician, cardiologist, spiritual writer and motivational speaker. He is the Past President of the Indian Medical Association and President of Heart Care Foundation of India. He is also the Editor in Chief of the IJCP Group, Medtalks and eMediNexus

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